INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTRIBUTORS
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension is an International
Scientific Journal covering a wide range of subject areas in
tropical and subtropical agriculture, published annually by the
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka.
Manuscripts and all correspondence should be addressed to:
Faculty of Agriculture,
University of Ruhuna,
Tel: +94 (0)41 229 2382
Fax: +94 (0)41 229 2382
Submission of manuscripts:
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension publishes research
& development results of broad practical significance in
tropical and subtropical agriculture. The subject areas covered
include crop genetic resources, agronomy, crop improvement, crop
physiology, plant protection, weed science, ecology and
sustainable management of tropical and subtropical agricultural
environments, restoration of degraded environments, agroforestry,
utilization and domestication of under-exploited plant and
animal resources, bio-technological applications, horticulture,
perennial crops, animal science including fisheries, food
science, post-harvest technology, farming systems, agricultural
economics, extension and education.
papers submitted to the Journal should not have been published
previously in the same, or any other form or language, or being
considered for publication elsewhere. However publications
appearing as abstracts or as part of a published lecture or
thesis may be submitted as a research paper.
Journal publishes review articles on critical evaluations of
existing knowledge in a specialized field, research papers and
short communications. The Editorial Board encourages
publications relating to research & development on indigenous,
under-exploited plant and animal resources, traditional methods
and techniques, work containing new methodological approaches,
Language of publication: English
Refereeing and editing:
material submitted for publication will be reviewed. The papers
will be edited if necessary to improve clarity and ease of
communication. Papers conforming to the conventions of the
Journal with regard to symbols, illustrations, tables,
references, nomenclature, etc. will be processed expeditiously.
Frequency of publication:
Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension is an annual
publication with four issues per volume, printed and circulated in
the months of October/November
original and three copies of the manuscript should be submitted
. Authors are encouraged to submit an electronic version of the
manuscript and correspond with the editorial office via email,
to expedite publication.
Although there is no maximum length prescribed for Review
Articles, the maximum preferred length of Research Paper should
be about 20 pages, including tables, figures and references.
Short Communications, which should carry an abstract of about 50
words, should not exceed 2000 words including a maximum of two
tables. They need not be structured as prescribed for Research
Papers. Nevertheless, the text should include the objectives of
the study, materials and methods used, results obtained,
discussion of the results, conclusions and relevant references.
Lengthy articles and reviews, proceedings of relevant
conferences and symposia may be published from time to time as a
supplementary issue of the Journal.
Organization of the text:
Research Papers should preferably be divided into the following
sections: (a) Abstract (b) Introduction (c) Materials and
methods (d) Results (e) Discussion (f) Conclusion (g)
Acknowledgements (if any) and (h) References. If necessary, each
section may be divided into sub-sections, and the sections (d)
and (e) above may be combined for clarity and convenience.
Titles and sub-titles should be typed on separate lines without
indentation. The manuscripts should be typed on one side of A4
paper, single spaced, with 4 cm margin on all sides. They should
be accompanied by a title page with following information; (a)
Title (the title should be as short as possible, but should
contain sufficient information reflecting the contents) (b)
Running Title- a shortened version of the title with less than
30 letters for running headlines (c) Names of authors and their
affiliations and addresses (in the order in which they appear in
the paper) (d) Name and address of the corresponding author if
different from the first author (e) Fax number and E-mail
address of corresponding author.
next page- first page of the text, should begin with the title,
names of authors and address/ addresses of the
establishment/establishments where the work was carried out.
Indicate the present address (es) of authors in a footnote if
different from the establishment where the work was carried out.
Include Fax and Email addresses as well.
Abstract should contain objectives of investigation,
experimental material and methods of investigation, results and
conclusions. The abstract should not exceed 175 words. Up to six
key words should be included just below the abstract.
text should begin immediately after the key words, starting from
the Introduction, which should be as short as possible and
should concentrate on the topic of the paper. It should be
limited to the statement of the problem and aim of the
experiments. Only the most recent and the most relevant previous
publications should be cited.
Materials and methods should give sufficient details of the
experimental materials, techniques, designs and methods employed
so that the experiment could be repeated. Where the methods are
well known, citation of the standard work is sufficient. The
statistical methods used should be clearly stated.
Results should be supported by brief but adequate tables, or
graphic or pictorial materials, whenever necessary.
Self-explanatory tables should be typed on separate sheets. The
place for inclusion of tables and figures should be marked by
pencil on the left border of the text. The results presented in
tables or figures should not be repeated in the text and the
same data should not be presented both in tables and figures.
Figures and tables should be limited to the bare minimum.
Running title should be written on the reverse side of each
table and figure, using pencil.
Discussion of the results should include recent literature
relevant to the findings and lead on to clear conclusions and
areas for further investigations. If warranted, a separate
section on conclusions may be included.
Acknowledgements should, as far as possible, be limited to
financial and technical assistance, and supply of material that
are not readily available.
References should be arranged alphabetically, typed
double-spaced and in text referred to as: author (last name
without initials) and year of publication, e.g. (Malik 1995).
Unless absolutely necessary, citation of personal communications
and unpublished data should be avoided. Such citations should
appear only in the text as, for example: (D.L. Eskew Personal
Communication). They should not be listed in the reference list
and vice versa. Please follow the examples given below:
Journal : Tan K, Keltjens WG and Findenegg GR 1993 Aluminium
toxicity in sorghum genotypes as influenced by solutions
acidity. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 39: 291-298.
Book : Date RA, Grundon NJ, Rayment GE and Robert ME (eds.) 1995
Plant Soil Interations at Low pH: Principles and Management.
Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Section of book : Kumarasinghe KS and Eskew DL 1995 Azolla as a
nitrogen fertilizer in sustainable rice production. In: Nuclear
Methods in Soil-Plant Aspects of Sustainable Agriculture.
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. pp. 147-154.
Hauck RD, Meisinger JJ and Mulvaney RL 1994 Practical
considerations in the use of nitrogen tracers in agricultural
and environmental research. pp.907-950. In: Weaver RW (ed.)
Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Microbiological and
Biochemical Properties. SSSA Book Ser. Number 5. SSSA,Madison,
When journal articles are listed, the journal name should be
abbreviated in accordance with the "World List of Scientific
Periodicals", Butterworths Scientific Publications, London. In
case of doubt, the full name should be given.
Abbreviations, symbols and units:
Whenever physical units, names and symbols are used, the SI-system
should be employed. Abbreviations should be explained when they
first appear in the text. Non-standard abbreviations should not
be used in the abstract. Abbreviations and symbols recommended
in the British Standard 1991: Letter Symbols, Signs and
Abbreviations should be used.
plants and animals, binary nomenclature with authority should be
used, e.g.: Oryza sativa L. They should either be typed in
italics or underlined. In subsequent citations the generic name
may be abbreviated, e.g. O. sativa L. For chemical compounds
follow the Chemical Abstracts (Chemical Abstract Service, Ohio
State Univ., Colombus, USA) and it's indexes. For biochemicals,
including abbreviations and symbols, SUPAC-IUB Commission of
Biochemical Nomenclature should be consulted.
Once the manuscript is accepted for publication, two copies of
page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author.
Proof-reading should be limited to the correction of
typographical errors. Authors should return the corrected proofs
by air mail or courier within the requested time.
each paper, the corresponding author will receive 10 offprints
free of charge. Additional offprints may be ordered at the time
or return of page proofs, according to the order form supplied.
Contributions published in the Journal or accepted for
publications are protected by copyright. All copyrights, whether
whole or part of the published material are reserved.
Translations, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, reproduction
on microfilms or by other means require authorization of the
Editor-in-Chief. Written permission should also be obtained
before any part of the publication is stored in a retrieval
Word processing package Microsoft Word is preferred. Manuscript
may be submitted on any other word processing package, but will
be converted to Microsoft Word with some risk of altering the
Tables and figures:
available, the tables feature of the word processor should be
used to generate tables. Include all tables after the text, as
they appear in the print. If a spreadsheet package was used for
the preparation of tables, such files can still be used if they
are saved in ASCII format. When aligning columns, one tab per
column should be used. Do not use space bar to align columns. If
the figures have been generated using a computer package, please
include the disc version of the figures as well, with a note of
the software package and its version. If any additions were made
to the figures available on disk, please mention that in your
covering letter or on the reverse side of figure, using pencil.
Use line patterns instead of shading as the latter does not
reproduce as clearly as line patterns.
symbols required for the text are available in the word
processor, please use them. However, never use two different
word processing characters for the same symbol. In using word
processors, special care has to be taken of consistency of
symbols. For example, do not use zero for English letter 'O' and
vice versa, do not use figure one (1) for lower case "L" (1).
When necessary, use the italics feature if available. Otherwise
use underscore for italics. Please do not mix these two
certain symbols not available in the word processor were drawn
by pen, or if available symbols were modified, please indicate
this by pencil on the side of the printed text.
SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS BY ELECTRONIC MAIL
Manuscripts may also be submitted by electronic mail to expedite
the reviewing process. However, the electronic version should be
followed by hard copies. The email address for submission is as